Neapolitan pizza dough is low hydration and formulated specifically for use in a wood fire oven. To be a true neapolitan pizza, the dough can only contain 00 pizza flour, water, salt and yeast.
The 00 pizza flour is especially important when making a neapolitan pizza, since the "leapording" or char responsible for the distinct look and flavor of neapolitan pizzas, taste bitter and burnt if any flour besides 00 pizza flour is used.
In many pizza doughs, especially those formulated for the home kitchen, olive oil and sugar are added to pizza dough; the former making the dough more exstensible, and both alllowing the dough to transfer heat and brown faster. However, if sugar or oil is used in neapolitan dough, it will quikcly burn and become bitter when cooked on a 750ºF+ deck.
To make the dough more exstensible and easier to stretch, neapolitan pizza dough is fermented for an extended period of time, usually between 24 and 48 hours.